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    Studies

      Gyarmati, György

      Historiography, history teaching and “supply of national consciousness” in the cavalcade of mediated images of the past

        Modern Hungarian thinking – in the past, as well as in the present – is strongly imbued with historical reflections, it is historicist. The author establishes that family socialization, as well as such types of art as patriotic-historical poems, historical novels, folk plays, popular novels and various “national operas” played a decisive role in the formation of non-scientific, that is, pre-scientific, historical culture. The first buds of modern national (nation-state) identity had a decisive role for Hungarian language and patriotic literature in the broader sense, but its parallel course with myth-making reinforced historiography, which was just starting to come into its own — that is, ambitiously separating from belles lettres but still bearing the mark of romanticism. This remained a decisive trend in the 19th century too, vitalized by a significant historical-political anniversary – the millennium of the conquest. In the course of the 20th century, more competent historiography, validated by a critical view of sources, only gradually and partially started to separate from the national romantic “cultivation of tradition”. According to the author, one can, even today, still not speak about sterile scientific historiography, and even less about demythologized historical thinking, because strong demand is still shown for the mythical narrative of the past.



          Salamon, Konrád

          Hungarian national consciousness and history teaching

            Eighty years ago, a peace treaty was signed in the Trianon Palace of Versailles that had serious implications for our home, reducing the area of the country by two-thirds and the Hungarian population by one-third. Libraries of literature have since dealt with this event and its tragic effects for our nation. This paper, from the pen of a historian who deals with the period, strives in part to think through the reasons for Trianon as well as to examine the impact of the event on the Hungarian national consciousness, while helping practicing history teachers to reconsider this sad anniversary from another point of view. This paper is not just about the past, but about the distortions that have occurred in our Hungarian national consciousness for more than half a century. The paper draws attention to the importance of national-folk and value-centered education, which has become especially important since our accession to the European Union. It is our intention that the paper should spark a debate that will help to nurture a healthy Hungarian national consciousness at the start of the new millennium.



              Workshop

                Workshop and conference on the teaching of history

                  At a conference in Budapest in August 2009, nearly 30 experts in higher education, developers of textbooks and other tools of instruction, and secondary school history teachers sought to find the main features of history instruction in the European Union. The opening lecture was by Prof. Elisabeth Erdmann, chairman of the International Society for History Didactics, who established that it is difficult to give a representative picture of history teaching in Europe as there are many different features of the course of instruction in various countries. However, in spite of this, it can generally be said that the following factors affect the teaching of history: the degree of instruction at the type of school within the individual country’s school system (e.g. does history teaching start at the lower level or only later); whether history is taught as an independent or an integrated subject (with other subjects, such as geography or other social studies subjects); and other school forms in the framework of which history is taught. Another shared feature is that the curriculum in European countries lays down the conceptual principles of history education. Furthermore, the qualifications of history teachers are a decisive pillar of the state of the education of history.



                    Katona, András

                    On national defense: questions about methods of learning about the army

                      The Army and national defense. Important concepts belonging to the main themes of history education. But do we really deal enough with them? And do we do so with the necessary professional understanding? The male teachers of today may have direct “experiences” in this regard. But what about their female colleagues? And what about those men who have “legally avoided” the Army since 2004? Very significant restructuring has taken place in our armed forces since the change of system, and we have to follow up on this as it is a part of the study of current history. This paper tries to sketch the past and present of the Hungarian Army, which celebrated its 160 anniversary in 2008, with a special emphasis on showing the whole spectrum of methodological ideas. The author cites visual material, too, and at the end of paper there is a list of literature for those who may want to delve deeper into the subject.



                        Száray, Miklós

                        The role and analysis of the map in the history lesson

                          Maps are necessary accessories for history lessons and for the study of history. This study by a well known and popular textbook editor as well as a practicing history teacher shows the development of topographical competency based on the requirements of the new dual-level school-leaving examinations and the large number of maps contained in the most popular middle school textbook series. A serious analytical foundation and a variety of examples from experience show that regular use of maps and their continued development as a source of information make the work of both the teacher and the students easier in the process of thinking about history. After a discourse on the roles of historical maps, the significance of teaching the analysis of maps, and the main points of analysis, the study presents 20 political-historical, national-ethnic, economic and geographical maps and their analysis. It presents possibilities for compiling maps and other resources at the end.




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