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    Studies

      Závodszky, Géza

      Habsburg-Hungarian compromises

        A number of conflicts over the course of the centuries between the estates of the Hungarian realm and the attempts at assimilation by the Habsburg dynasty, who had been on the Hungarian throne since 1526, ended in “compromise”, but the de jure personal union remained intact. Absolutist rule followed the defeat of the 1848-49 Revolution and War of Independence. After the military defeat of the Empire, Franz Josef experimented with limited constitutionality. This study outlines the process, overseen by Ferenc Deák, from the personal union and the foundation of the laws of 1845 that led to the relinquishing of legal continuity and to real union. A controversial system was established that brought with it success but was incapable of renewal. The ruler had sovereign rights that were incompatible with civil constitutionality, leaving Hungarian politics no opportunity for meaningful decisions on questions of war and peace. The country’s economic, cultural and demographic growth were neutralized by the Treaty of Trianon at the end of WWI, the effects of which are felt to this day. The study stresses that history is not a determined process as there was an alternative to the Compromise of 1867.



          Kaposi, József

          Historical thinking and skill-building tasks

            We may be witness to the process of a cultural shift in pedagogy these days. In history education, the paradigm of history teaching based on stories and documents has become the rule. The aim of developing knowledge acquisition and processing skills, critical thinking, communication and cooperation have moved to the forefront of learning and teaching. Among the innovations of the recent period, it is worth noting so-called skill-building tasks which, in addition to developing transversal skills, are useful for developing methodological, intellectual, personal-social and communication competencies, while rewarding students for activities undertaken independently, in pairs or in groups. The solution to such tasks is based on interactivity and productivity, they require interpretive learning on the part of the students as well as the use of those competencies that play a decisive role in establishing historical processes and interpretive frameworks (patterns) and adapting those to different situations. The paper wishes to show that the use of skill-building tasks generally requires newer learning organization methods in which the self-confidence-enhancing function of task-solving, the acquisition of a learning language and system of tools, and the recognition of analogies play a key role. The paper also strives to show that the use of skill-building tasks can effectively support an understanding of both the past and present as well as an interpretation of future changes. Furthermore, it fosters the education of citizens who think independently, have critical skills and can weigh matters of importance, who are capable of participating in a democratic society with fairness and objectivity.



              Dahn, Thomas C.

              The tasks, difficulties and challenges of contemporary history teaching

                The author of this study begins by pointing out that the tasks and work of the historian and the history teacher are similar: both systematically study historical events and contexts and convey their results. For this reason, he pays special attention in the first part to source work and describing the difficulties and tasks that accompany it. Then he explains the tasks of history teaching – and of the history teacher – as well as their significance from the perspective of society as well as the individual. He describes the current situation and the problems that arise, and – seeing as he believes the occupation of teacher is by no means a hopeless endeavor – strives to lay out opportunities at present and in the future. The paper is especially interesting as the author of the thesis is a German history teacher who has lived in Hungary for years. It could be instructive for us to see how he views the situation of history teaching in Hungary.





                  Workshop

                    Zrinszki, János – Kinyó, László

                    The application of historical knowledge in the 8th grade: the results of a survey in Vas County

                      Our study relates to the traditions of evaluation and assessment in the subject of history. We examined the historical knowledge of eighth-grade students based on curriculum standards as well as background factors influencing their knowledge. The examination was conducted with the involvement of nine groups of students in schools in the Vas County teaching district during the 2015-2016 academic year. Primarily we looked for the answer to what kind of historical knowledge students have after four years of studying history.

                      The organizational structure of our study follows the usual traditions of interpretation of the results of empirical pedagogical research. In a review of professional literature, we first discuss the particularities of historical knowledge, comparing them with the characteristics of knowledge of the natural sciences. Then we review the skills and abilities that can be formed and developed as contained in the core as well as framework curricula. When presenting the results of the subject evaluation, we analyze the solutions to the test problems as well as the results of the sample-level analysis. We touch on the average results of the individual schools and examine whether special education needs students and those with social, learning and behavioral difficulties influence the results of some classes. In our analysis of background variables, we summarize the influencing roles of attitudes toward the subject, semester grades, grade point average and the results of girls and boys.



                        Pálmai, Judit

                        The image of the family in the early 20th century in public education documents

                        The family and the function of the family in curricula, textbooks and professional literature during the Horthy Era

                          The following research examines the image of the family in curricula, textbooks and professional journals of education in the period between the two world wars using a complex method of document and content analysis, allowing a qualitative as well as quantitative analysis of the topic at hand. The following article relates, for matters of scope, only the most important qualitative data. The examination seeks primarily to explore and analyze family life during the Horthy Era through family functions. The research shows that family image in the analyzed publications from the period are often at odds with the reality in society.



                            Schweininger, Péter

                            Local History in the Sixth Grade

                            An example of incorporating local history content into a history lesson in a village primary school with an ethnic German profile

                              Realizing that not just rulers and states, but the old man down the street and the village in which he lives, have a history is often fascinating for students learning history. Perhaps all practicing history teachers have experienced that students judge historical processes more realistic, more familiar if they explore these through examples related to their own communities (too). Thus it is not by chance that the role of local history content in history lessons now has a strong tradition in Hungarian education. The author of this paper, who teaches in a primary school with an ethnic German profile in the village of Szár, made a successful attempt to present a piece of the past of their small community, process it together and insert it into their history as a whole, both within the framework of a primary school lesson as well as without.