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      Kojanitz, László

      Development of historical thinking with New Generation textbooks

        The goal of history teaching is not for students to simply review what they read in textbooks and hear from their teacher. Information about the past has to be approached independently, too: new questions must be raised, new interpretations encountered, we must parse the information again and look for new correlations. In order to achieve this, we must link the teaching of history from the start to the development of the skills necessary for historical thinking. We have strived to meet these expectations in the course of preparing the New Generation series of primary school history books and supplemental teaching materials. The novel solutions presented in these textbooks offer a variety of support and ideas for the work of innovative teachers.

          Szepesi, Gábor

          The possibility of introducing a digital school leaving exam in the subject of history

            This study lays out an alternative prospect for a manner in which to replace the conventional paper-based school leaving exam with a digital one on an online platform. One may conclude after weighing the pros and cons that, although the online exam has certain restrictions, it’s cost-effectiveness, the way it minimizes the strain of teachers who most correct it, the ever more important development of digital competency in the information society and the increased objectivity of the leaving school exam make the digitalization of the exam practically unavoidable. In my paper, I present experiences collected in the course of compiling and administering a series of exam tasks with the aim of convincing those who may still have doubts about the introduction of this new means of assessment.

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                Papp, Gergely

                The school of the country
                The Debrecen Reformed College in the 16th century

                The emergence of the Hungarian Reformation and its effects on Hungarian culture in the 16th century

                  The centers of the Reformation in Hungary were capitals of culture, just as were the centers of the Reformation in Europe. This is especially true of Debrecen and particularly of the Reformed College, which had an extraordinary impact on Hungarian culture, the mother tongue, education and the instruction of the broadest range of society’s members through its professors, teachers and the numerous masters of Hungarian literature who studied here. The Reformation, the appearance of Protestantism, was one of the most important historical events in the history of Debrecen. So much so, that it defined the life of city, its identity and its development for centuries, and still has a marked impact on day-to-day life even today. I would like to show how the Debrecen Reformed College could contribute to the spiritual and cultural enrichment of Hungary, and especially eastern Hungary, by spreading Protestant doctrines through an expansive network of educational institutions established in a Hungary that had been torn apart.


                      Kőműves, Edina

                      Zoom to November 7

                      A scale-changing analysis of the school commemoration of the Great October Socialist Revolution

                        The apparently distinguishable element of historical reality, so-called historical fact, is never a distinct, well-defined object, but an intricate net of factors with either tight or loose connections to each other. Additionally, “in the original meaning of the word, there is no individual history, no personal history. That which happens to the person as an individual is always connected to other people. A new paradox: the individual, the personal history is actually nothing other than the history of that person’s connections with everybody else.” In the following, we attempt to examine the perceptions of the Great October Socialist Revolution on the basis of a picture formed from the various experiences of students in elite secondary schools in Budapest in the 1980s. We base our analysis not only on well-known legal and textbook sources, but on materials relating to the Apáczai Csere János Secondary School, affiliated with the Eötvös Loránd University. We strive to make a balanced selection between viewpoints on the macro and the micro levels when choosing levels of experience, allowing us to construct a picture on the basis of various possible planes and cumulative impressions that may have arisen. The five selected foci are the following: (A) The central position of the party state regarding the November 7 commemoration. (B) The centrally approved and supported textbook texts. (C) The lessons. (D) School commemorations. (E) The environment among family and friends.

                          Mohay, Borbála

                          Changes to the landscape and environment in Turkish-era Hungary. Lesson plan.

                            The role of the natural environment as it relates to historical happenings can arise in a number of situations, thus in history lessons, too. I develop in detail a topic that can be used both to stress factors of sustainability and the establishment of a complex historical viewpoint: the correlations among Turkish-era changes to the landscape. The content of the activity, planned and executed in the framework of a secondary school lesson, is organized around two main processes: the depopulation of communities and the transformation of flood plains into swamps. The methodology of the lesson plan includes frontal instruction, work in pairs and groups, discussion and debate. In the course of approaching the topic on a deeper level, the students are confronted with different opportunities for evaluating source material and different historical positions—thus they can become acquainted with the peculiarities of the science of history that they might otherwise not be exposed to in the classroom.