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      Salamon, Konrád

      Directions and Misdirections: 1918-1920

      Part 1: From the Aster Revolution to the Hungarian Soviet Republic

        The history of the Aster Revolution and the first Hungarian People’s Republic is an issue that remains the subject of passionate debate in our history to the present day. However, it would be of great importance for a national consensus to be formed around this tragic but venerable struggle on the occasion of its 100th anniversary. In addition to boosting national self-esteem, this could also contribute to alleviating contemporary rancor between political sides, the sources and “evidence” for which in part draw on the defamatory accounts and one-sided histories of the events of a century ago. Thus I thought I would review the 20-month history from our defeat in the war to the peace treaty forced upon us, and with that from the Aster Revolution to the Hungarian Soviet Republic in a short summary laying out the facts. Furthermore, I collect a small volume of opinions and statements which were expressed and published by those who participated in events or observed them as contemporaries – with one or two exceptions – during the Aster Revolution and the First Hungarian People’s Republic. (The part of the selection pertaining to the Aster Revolution is being published in our Workshop section – ed.)

          Dárdai, Ágnes – Katona, András– Korpics, Zsolt

          History Teaching: Ten years online in the service of history teaching

            All sciences and professions – teachers, too – need a professional journal. All around the world, this publication interface offers the given profession the chance to print the most important questions, dilemmas and problems. Professional journals can also be seen as a kind of tool of legitimization, as scientific or methodological problems in the subject of history are discovered by professionals in professional journals. Ten years ago, in the autumn of 2009, the idea was formulated that, in line with the digital age, following in the footsteps of our predecessors must be done on an electronic path, supplying once more the history teaching profession with a little intellectual munition, giving them the chance to express their innovation ideas and thoughts. The first issue of the online journal History Teaching appeared on February 1, 2010. Since then, we have appeared 23 times with 36 issues, in which some 300 articles by more than 160 authors, among them a number of well-known professors and authorities from Hungary and abroad. The editors take stock of the road travelled thus far.

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                Torjay, Benedek

                The Treason Trial of Miklós Wesselényi

                  Political crimes are the name given to those punishable actions which are politically targeted against the state and the established powers. In the Middle Ages, this meant popular revolts. Instances considered as treason, so commonly named, including attacks and defamations against the established power of the constitution, the king and the crown were punishable with loss of life and property. In the case treason was established, the estates granted were returned to the king who could grant them again. With the passing of time, the significance of the re-granting of estates was reduced and the elimination from public life of political players standing in opposition to the interests of the established powers came to the fore. The crime of treason could potentially serve this purpose well. So too was the trial conducted in Hungary against Miklós Wesselényi on the charge of treason. This paper presents the events preceding, the process of and effects of the trial, and seeks an answer to the question of whether Miklós Wesselényi was the victim of a show trial. The author uses the authoritative historical and legal sources, as these are necessary to form reasonably an opinion on the show trial nature of the trial started because of political crimes.

                    Börzsei, Máté Márk

                    The Treason Trial of Miklós Wesselényi

                      My paper presents the political trial of Miklós Wesselényi, one of the best known figures of the Reform Age of Hungary. It briefly describes the baron’s early life and political endeavors, and how the Habsburg government tried to foil these endeavors. The cruelest method adopted in these attempts was a trial on charges of treason. My paper presents the era’s complicated and convoluted judicial system, and outlines the process of Wesselényi’s trial. Additionally, the paper sheds light on the impact of the trial, which could be called a show trial, on the baron’s physical and mental health. Lastly, the paper draws a meaningful conclusion from these considerations.


                          Salamon, Konrád

                          Contemporary Accounts of the Aster Revolution

                            To complement the paper published in the Studies section, I have collected a small bunch of opinions and statements which were expressed and published by those who participated in events or observed them as contemporaries – with one or two exceptions – during the Aster Revolution. These statements – correct evaluations of what happened – are in agreement that the creation of a parliamentary democracy after the defeat in the war would have been, for Hungary, the most tenable path and the best political solution. Thus they were supportive of the changes brought by the Aster Revolution and the proclamation of the republic. The contemporary opinions expressed here by a number of people differ significantly from their later recollections and positions in a number of cases.

                              Dancs, Katinka

                              National Symbols, the Knowledge-based Elements of National Identity II.

                              Gauging levels of knowledge concerning national symbols appearing in pupils’ curricula in grades 1-6.

                                In our research, we established a goal of examining the national identity of primary school pupils, constructing the theoretical framework and methodology to help us get to know the characteristics of the knowledge of national identity in the age group. In our present work, we present those tests which we created based on our earlier research to allow us to characterize some cognitive elements of the pupils’ national identity, namely their degree of knowledge related to national symbols. We created tests for pupils in grades 1 through 6 and collected information on the operation of the test and the pupils’ performance in the framework of an online gauge. Our results show the tests can gauge pupils’ level of knowledge with an acceptable degree of accuracy; however, further development of the tests could be the task of continued research. Concerning the pupils’ level of knowledge, it can be said that most achieved scores of 51-60%. We also examined the correlation between the pupils’ attitudes and their knowledge levels. Our results show a significant correlation between the variables in the case of pupils in the first and second grades. This result suggests that a correspondence between attitude-like elements of national identity and pupils’ degree of knowledge are seen only around the time pupils start school. The connection between the variables becomes practically negligible in the higher grades.