Ahhoz, hogy tudjuk, merre tartunk, mit akarunk,
tudnunk kell, hogy kik vagyunk és honnan jövünk.


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      Makk, Gábor

      Changes to the perception of learning from antiquity to the present depending on adaptivity to communications technologies

        Marshall McLuhan’s Gutenberg Galaxy testifies to the significant transformation of human perception and thinking by means of adaptivity to communication technologies. As a result, perception of space and time changes and the cognitive mind assimilates the communication technology device. Given this, the spread of the alphabet, the printing press, the motion picture and computerization have contributed to a large degree to the appearance of one or another new epistemological paradigms. The internalization of media attests that these paradigms appear with a new conceptual toolkit related to the use of the given communication technology. On the basis of the theory of didactics of István Nahalka, these paradigms form conceived notions about learning. I suppose that, looking at the theories of McLuhan and Nahalka together, the perception of learning from antiquity to the present are in a state of constant flux dependent in large part on the adaptivity to communication technologies. The engine for this change is the divergent interpretation of the relationship between the cognitive mind and the external world. This study seeks to illuminate how adaptivity to communication technologies can influence changes to the perception of learning given the various interpretations of the relationship between the subject and the object.

          Kojanitz, László

          Connecting oral history to new learning strategies

            As a member of the MTA-SZTE Oral History and History Teaching Research Group, I examine the various possibilities offered by the use of oral history in schools. Personal histories and the erstwhile world they bring to life are apt to capture the attention of even disinterested students. This is such a valuable and exciting novelty for history teaching that it is worth connecting it to research-based learning and to the development of history metaconcepts concerning thinking based on correct interpretation (e.g. source, evidence, reason, interpretation).

              Gyertyánfy, András

              Metaphors of the History Teacher

                A greater emphasis is being placed on the teacher’s role in today’s history didactics. This paper offers a collection of metaphors for the history teacher. The basic metaphors are „actor” and „director” which reflect the difference between frontal teaching and experiential learning, however, in the light of other metaphors, they are not diametrically opposed. Further figures of speech relate to the substantive content of teaching, to the preliminary knowledge of students or to the relationship between teachers and students. The metaphors may inspire reflection on the role of the history teacher. They also indicate current trends and dilemmas in Hungarian history didactics. Finally, the author points to the fact that history teachers are historians, so they must observe the rules of the historian’s profession. Referring to an example from the US literature, he suggests that it would be worth examining the profession of history teacher as well as how Hungarian history teachers’ mentality has been influenced by the past of their profession.

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                    Wisznovszky, Tamás

                    The scouts and the Sodality of Our Lady in the Premonstratensian St. Norbert Secondary School of Gödöllő

                      Gödöllő is a city with a very rich past attesting to its cultural heritage. The goal of my research is to present two associations which operated in the local Premonstratensian St. Norbert Secondary School between WWI and WWII and reveal the influence and significance, on a national and international scale, of the scouts and the Sodality of Our Lady (Congregatio Mariana). These associations associations diverge from each other in a number of ways; at the same time, they exhibit common features on a number of points. It is by no coincidence that both Rákóczi Scout Troop No. 44 and the Sodality of Our Lady were both active in the same Catholic secondary school in the 1920s, 30s and 40s. The associations active here had a big impact not only on the school, but on the entire community. The goal of my research is to explore the ways in which the associations participated in the life of the city, and how they were different from the similar associations in hundreds of other communities around the country.


                          Kamp, Alfréd

                          The methodological possibilities of the newly developed Smart Textbook in the updated framework of the National Public Education Portal

                            Between 2014 and 2018, the Hungarian Institute for Educational Research and Development developed the New Generation Textbooks for all subjects in all grades with the aim of renewing the content offering in public schools in the framework of the Social Renewal Operative Program (SROP) 3.1.2-B/13 project. In addition to the creation of these paper-based teaching tools, an important goal of the project was to establish a kind of online platform through which teachers and students could access the digital versions of the textbooks as well as supplemental, online materials in a user-friendly manner. The online platform went live under the name National Public Education Portal (NKP) in 2015.

                            (Edited version of a presentation delivered at a conference called Save As. History teaching in the Carpathian Basin, organized by the Teachers’ Chapter of the Hungarian Historical Society at the Eötvös Loránd University Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences on December 1, 2018.)

                              Horváth, Ilona

                              Economic history and economics and financial studies in the secondary school

                                Research on the state of financial literacy started abroad at the beginning of the 2000s and in Hungary in 2006. The latest international and Hungarian studies on financial literacy all point to a serious lack of financial literacy among the general population. The global problem has piqued the interest of both researchers and financial professionals, and it relates to the good of the national economy on a number of points. The growing number of studies on financial literacy around the world establish with near consistency that secondary school students get their knowledge of finance and economics mainly from parents at home, which does not usually support the younger age group with adequate information. As this contradiction aggravates the financial vulnerability of the general population, the role of education gains even greater significance. Ways must be examined that make possible the efficient development of financial literacy in an education system in which secondary school students are already overburdened. Contemporary instruction in economic history can contribute to the development of financial literacy.

                                In the English language, the expression financial literacy means the ability to read and write in the area of finance. In the Hungarian language, we use the expressions financial culture or, as in this study, financial literacy. In a broader sense, the expression financial literacy relates to things such as general awareness, familiarization, making connections and a stress on applied knowledge. Taking this approach, the competencies attached to financial literacy are intertwined with competencies of other areas of literacy, and their elements strengthen and support each other.

                                  Magasi, András

                                  Silence is golden? Teaching the use of the “three Ts”

                                    Among the requirements related to the era in the secondary school curriculum is the expression the “three Ts”. (A descriptor of cultural policy in Socialist-era Hungary that stands for “Tiltott, Tűrt, Támogatott”: “Prohibited, Tolerated, Supported” in English-ed.) At the same time, knowledge of the characteristics of the Kádár era, the way of life and day-to-day to existence during the era, are among the requirements for the mid-level matriculation exam. I find it good to approach the topic through examples of popular music, as all of our students listen to music and have their own favorites.

                                    They take it for granted that they can access the music of any performer from any country with any lyrics. Learning that this was not always so is enough to draw them out of their everyday lives and makes it easy to drum up interest in the topic. For me, it’s always a pleasant surprise when it turns out in the course of the lesson that some of the songs are familiar to my students. Usually, they say they heard them at home “playing in the background” as their parents listened. Some have even said they grew up on this music.